Учак кантип учат

Учакты абада кармаган нерсе - анын канаты.

Канатты айланып аккан аба анда жогору көтөрүүчү күчтү пайда кылат. Төмөнкү сүрөттү карайлы.

Канат абанын агымына жаңтайыңкы жайгашкандыктан канаттын ылдый жагында аба канатка урунуп ылдамдыгын бир аз жоготот. Ал эми канаттын жогору жагында абанын ылдамдыгы көп өзгөрбөйт.  А биз мектептеги гидродинамикадан билебиз (Бернуллинин мыйзамы) - агымдын ылдамдыгы жогору болгон жактагы басым азырак болуп, агымдын ылдамдыгы төмөнүрөк болгон жакта жогору болот. Демек канаттын төмөн жагындагы басым жогору жактагысынан чоңурак болуп, ал канатты өйдө көтөрмөлөйт. Көтөрүү күчүнүн өлчөмү канаттын формасына, аянтына, анын аба агымына жаңтайыңкы жайгашышына, абанын агымынын ылдамдыгына байланыштуу.

Бирок канатка көтөрүүчү күчтөн башка дагы көп күчтөр таасир этет.

Бул жерде G - жерге тартылуу күчү (салмагы), Xабанын каршылык күчү, Y - көтөрүү күчү, R - толук кaршылык күчү, а - учактын кыймыл багыты менен канаттын жаңтайыңкы жайгашынын бурчу.

Учак учушу үчүн толук каршылык күчтөн чоң, учакты алдыга жылдырган күч керек. Батперекте бул ал байланган жиптин серпилүү күчү, моторлуу учактарда - мотору, ал эми калкып учкан планерлордо - учактын салмак күчү (сүрөттү кара).

Планер учактын алыска учушу учактын анын аэродинамикалык сапатына (К) байланыштуу.  Бул жерде К=Y/Х. Демек аэродинамикалык сапат учактын көтөрүү күчү анын каршылык күчүнөн канча эсе чоң экендигин көрсөтөт. Калкып учкан учактардын котөрүү күчү адатынча анын каршылык күчүнөн 10-15 эсе жогору болот. Башкача айтканда жакшы, кынтыксыз жасалган кагаз учактын учкан алыстыгы L учак учурулган бийиктиктен H 10-15 эсе чоң болот.

Учак жакшы учушу үчүн дагы бир маанилүү шарт: учактын салмак борбору басым борбору  менен дал келиши керек же бир аз алдыда болушу керек. Бул жерде салмак борбору - учактын алды, арты жагы тең салмакта боло турган жер.  Канаттары жалпак кагаз учактарда анын басым борбору негизинен канаттардын геометриялык борбору менен дал келет.

Эгер аталган шарт сакталбаса, анда учактын баш жагын бир аз оорлотуш керек. Буга кошумча кагаз, тиркетмелер (скрепка) жарайт.

Учактын негизги түзүлүшү менен Улуу ата мекендик согуш учурундагы эң бир мыкты истребителдердин бири деп эсептелген Як-3 учагынын мисалында таанышалы.

фюзеляж - учактын денеси, ал калган баардык бөлүктөрдү бириктирип турат жана анда учкуч отурган кабина, куралдар, приборлор ж.б.д.у.с. жайгашат;

канаттар - учакта көтөрүүчү күчтү жаратуучу негизги нерсе;

элерондор - канатта жайгашып, учактын учушунда пайда болгон ар кандай кыйшайууларды жокко чыгарып учактын түз учушун камсыз кылат;

бийиктик жана багыт рулдары - аталыштары айтып жаткандай эле учактын уча турган багыттарын камсыз кылат;

стабилизатор (туруктандыргыч) менен киль -  учактын туруктуу учушун камсыздоого жардам беришет.

Аталган нерселе биз жасай турган кагаз учактарда да кездешет.

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